Just north of the town of Vulcan, Alta., Snow falls on Markert Seeds, a dryland farm that grows wheat, barley, rapeseed, peas and flax.
The first snowfall of the year means that the autumn work on the farm has been completed. The moisture comes as a welcome relief after the summer, when droughts destroyed operations across southern Alberta.
Ron Markert, president of Markert Seeds, has just harvested his 50th crop on the operation. He has seen good and bad years, and his experience has taught him how to prepare for the last.
But like all other agricultural operations on dry land – which refers to growing crops without the use of irrigation in arid areas – the challenges of recent years in southern Alberta have hit hard.
“When we look at the numbers, we had about a third of a crop of what is an average crop,” Markert said. “Some were worse, rapeseed was probably worse than anything else. But wheat, barley and peas were all down.”
Alberta experienced scorching heat above 35 C for days this summer, setting record high temperatures. A number of provincial municipalities declared agricultural disasters due to drought.
Farmers in southern Alberta experienced a better-than-expected harvest in 2020. That made some cautiously optimistic after three previous years of drought-like conditions.
This year, crop insurance is important. But for less experienced farmers, even a challenging summer like this in the past can lead to high levels of stress.
“The more [drought] you have, the worse it gets. It just drives you further and further down, “Markert said.
Impact on mental health
Markert’s son, Lee, who is the company’s chief operating officer, said farmers his age across the province are now facing some difficult decisions.
“People in my generation are really getting into the time in their lives where they have kids to look after and trying to get them through school and sports,” he said.
“You throw it all away and you potentially have a stressful situation when the crop is not there to support them.”
Humphrey Banack is a grain farmer in central Alberta and a board member of the Alberta Federation of Agriculture. He said that when the weather does not cooperate, farmers on dry land can only see their crops wither.
“It plays really hard mentally on people when you see this happen,” Banack said. “There’s your livelihood in the field, you have made your plans, and all of a sudden those plans change.”
Economic impact on local businesses
The impacts are not only felt by the agricultural population.
Ghassan Hamdan, owner of Mama’s Pizza & Pasta in Vulcan, says the impact of fighting crops, coupled with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, has spread to businesses in the community.
“We lost more than 55 percent of the business,” Hamdan said. “And we’re trying to stay open, but I do not know how long we can fight this.”
Local farmers used to come into his business twice a week for dinner. Now, Hamdan said, he sees the same people twice a month, if that.
“The situation affects everyone. The workers, the peasants, everyone,” he said.
Several deteriorating growth conditions
Stefan Kienzle is a professor of geography at the University of Lethbridge, who has created an interactive website that lets Albertans explore how climate is changing.
Dryland farmers in southern Alberta, especially those living west of Lethbridge, are facing several deteriorating growing conditions, he said.
“Number one, they have less annual rainfall, especially in the summer,” Kienzle said. “The most important thing is that the change in precipitation can be a natural cycle, so at the moment we can not make a clear connection to climate change.”
At the same time, farmers on dry land are facing higher evaporation rates due to higher temperatures and a longer growing season, he said, resulting in drier soils.
“The increase in evaporation is 100 percent associated with climate change,” he said. “Then of course we have heat waves, like the one we faced this year … That heat wave sucked the remaining soil moisture out of the ground and really gave a lot of stress to the dryland farmers.”
On top of that, farmers on dry land also face an increased risk of pests, such as a grasshopper infestation that was observed last summer, due to the favorable conditions that very hot and dry soil conditions provide.
“For the last four out of five years, we’ve had summer drought conditions,” Kienzle said. “So that means there was stress for the farmers on the dry land, not just in 2021, but quite a few years before.”
A universal experience on dryland operations
When it comes to other dryland operations in southern Alberta, the mood is the same: This year was challenging, and many are taking the cold season ahead as a chance to reset.
Nichole Neubauer owns and operates Neubauer Farms with her husband. She said her family farm has been around since 1910.
“Our dryland crops produced only a fraction of what they wanted,” she said. “That was probably about a quarter of what we wanted on average over the last 10 years.”
Garry Lentz, who farms on a dry land 16 miles east of Medicine Hat, said crop insurance largely only covers production costs.
“There is no profit to be made this year in agriculture,” he said. “It’s a big disappointment. It puts everything on hold as you have planned.”
And the challenges also extend to agriculture outside of Alberta.
Hart Smith farms with his father at Grace Hill Farms, a multigenerational organic grain farm in southwestern Saskatchewan.
“Most of our crops and neighbors’ crops did not do well,” Smith said. “This is my first year as a farmer. For me, this year is one of my best and hopefully worst years ever.”
CBC Calgary has launched a Lethbridge agency to help tell your stories from southern Alberta with reporter Joel Dryden. History ideas and tips can be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org.